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Paul Wright, M.D.

Dr. Paul Wright practices general neurology, with a subspecialty in Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases. He is certified by the American Board of Psychiatry & Neurology.

Currently, he serves as the Director of Stroke at St. Francis Hospital in Roslyn, NY, and is the past President of the Medical Staff at North Shore University Hospital. He also serves as the current Co-Chairman of the Credentialing Committee for the North Shore LIJ Health System. Dr. Wright is also an Attending Physician at North Shore University Hospital in Manhasset, NY, and Long Island Jewish Hospital in New Hyde Park, NY. He also holds academic appointment as Assistant Clinical Professor of Neurology at Hofstra University of Medicine and an Assistant Clinical Professor of Neurology at The Mount Sinai School of Medicine.

After completing three years of military service, Paul Wright graduated from Cornell University in 1991 with a Bachelor of Science in neurobiology. Having worked in the Cornell University Neurobiology Department and Psychology Department, Dr. Wright pursued his interest in research at Regeneron Pharmaceuticals in Tarrytown, NY. He then received his M.D. degree from Sackler School of Medicine at Tel Aviv University.

Dr. Wright completed his internal medicine internship at NYU Downtown Hospital. He then spent the next three years completing his neurology residency at the Mount Sinai School of Medicine, where he was appointed chief resident. He was the recipient of the prestigious Bella Trachtenberg Award for House Staff Excellence.

Continuing his work Mount Sinai, he gained extensive experience in carotid and transcranial dopplers as a fellow in Stroke and Critical Care Neurology. He received the Physician of the Year award from Mount Sinai Medical Center in 2000.

He has been a member of the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology since 2001. He is also a member of the Nassau County Medical Society, American Medical Association and the Medical Society of the State of New York.

Dr. Wright has been published in numerous journals, including Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography, American Society of Neuroimaging, Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases, European Journal of Neuroscience, Journal of Neuroscience, and Society for Neuroscience Abstracts.

Radio Broadcast Data System

In 2005, Philippe moved to Halifax and became Project Engineer, Atlantic region, for CBC/Radio Canada Transmission Engineering division. Since 2009, Philippe has been working out of Montreal as Senior Manager for the Transmission Engineering division. Philippe is a graduate of the University of Moncton, NB in Electrical Engineering (1999) and also has a Master of Business Administration degree from Saint Mary University, Halifax, NS (2008).

Introduction While listening to FM radio in your car or on your portable FM receiver, you have probably noticed that the FM station frequency is not the only information displayed on your monitor. In fact, nowadays, most FM stations transmit additional data that provide a variety of features that are of great use to radio listeners.

The Radio Broadcast Data System (RBDS) is the technical standard that allows FM transmitters to broadcast additional types of information through encoded digital signals that can be displayed on RBDS compatible FM radio receivers. Currently, the majority of car manufacturers offer RBDS compatible FM receivers and/or navigation systems in their automobiles. Moreover, high end audio entertainment systems and portable FM receivers, such as the iPod Nano, now have built in RBDS functionality.

The purpose of this article is to briefly explain RBDS technology and the features currently in use at CBC/Radio Canada. As you will see, RBDS technology can be used to enhance the FM radio listening experience by interacting with listeners while offering interesting third party partnership opportunities, and, best of all, RBDS can be used to keep listeners tuned in!

RBDS Basics RBDS data are modulated and carried inaudibly as a 57 kHz subcarrier on the FM baseband stereo signal. Figure 1 shows the baseband audio portion of an FM stereo signal, including the RBDS subcarrier.

Figure 1 Baseband audio signal with RDBS sub carrier

Low injection levels (3% to 5%) allow the RBDS data to be efficiently transmitted on FM airwaves without affecting the performance of the main audio signal. The RBDS data are continuously transmitted in a cyclical fashion, resulting in a very robust data stream optimised for mobile reception. RBDS data transmission is possible with the use of cost effective software and encoders. Consequently, RBDS implementation costs are relatively low for FM broadcasters wanting to implement this technology.

RBDS Features In its most basic form, RBDS technology allows FM stations to display the station name or call sign on the receiver. This is done using the Program Service Name feature (PS Name). PS Name is limited to eight characters and it is usually displayed on the RBDS receiver instead of the station frequency. At the CBC/Radio Canada, PS Name convention for our four FM networks is usually:

RadioOne for Radio One Premiere for Premi Cha Espace M for Espace Musique RadioTwo for CBC Radio Two Recent developments in RBDS technology allow FM stations to make use of a variety of additional features, such as the ability for a receiver to automatically switch from transmitter to transmitter, display scrolling text information, tag songs for future Internet download, and create partnerships with third party applications, just to name a few. The following sections will explain some of these RBDS features currently in use at CBC/Radio Canada.

Radiotext Radiotext Plus The Radiotext feature (RT) is used to display dynamic data information or scrolling text on the radio receiver. This feature is limited to 64 characters and can scroll through a variety of information such as the song name, artist name, or the name of a specific show. Additional information, such as the weather forecast, traffic info, local promotional events, and advertisements can also be transmitted and displayed with this feature. Radiotext Plus (RT+), on the other hand, is an wholesale jerseys shop additional data stream that allows receivers to control and sort information on separate areas of the receiver. This makes the FM radio listening experience much more appealing, since the information has an MP3 player or Satellite Radio receiver look and feel.

Figure 2(a) iPod Nano with RT+ feature

on Espace Musique in Montreal

Figure 2(b) iPod Nano,

list of tagged songs

The RT+ feature also allows listeners to tag songs while using compatible devices. Figure 2(a) shows an example of an iPod Nano media player that also includes an RBDS compatible FM receiver. The song title and artist name are displayed and can be by using the icon on the bottom left of the screen. The song title and artist name will be saved so that, the next time listeners connect their device to the Internet, the tagged songs will be accessible and available for purchase online. See figure 2(b) for an example of a list of tagged songs.

Figure 3 Samsung Android (left) and Blackberry

Curve (right) with RT+ data, courtesy of the CRC.

Radio stations can also use the RT+ feature to connect with their audience like never before. For example, figure 3 shows two snapshots of Communications Research Centre Canada (CRC) FM TwoO application[i] for the Samsung Android and Blackberry Curve smart phones. These smart phones also have RBDS compatible FM receivers. Listeners would have the ability to connect to the stations websites or use the speed dial function of their device to place calls and/or send emails. Additional applications such as photos, album covers and a variety of advertisements could also be displayed. User selected information of this sort can provide additional opportunities for FM stations in terms of how they meet the requirements of their listeners.

Alternate Frequency (AF Feature) If you listen to FM stations while travelling over long distances, you will need to retune your car radio from time to time when wholesale jerseys the signal begins to fade out. This is because FM signals cover a radius of up to 80 km from the transmitter site, depending on your station operating parameters and terrain. Therefore, a network of FM transmitters is required to provide coverage for a particular programming over great distances. While neighbouring transmitters need to use alternate FM frequencies to avoid interference, the Alternate Frequency (AF) feature will allow your receiver to switch automatically to a better signal of the same programming so you will not need to retune manually. The switch in frequency is seamless to the listener and it is a great feature to keep listeners tuned into CBC/Radio Canada while driving long distances. Since the RBDS receiver will look for pre programmed frequencies and the programmed identification code specified by the network that is currently tuned in, competitor stations could not switch a receiver to their frequency. It is also important to point out that some receivers need to have their AF feature activated, as this is an optional feature on many RBDS compatible receivers. This has been the case with GM vehicles that we tested where ON needed to be enabled.

Figure 4 shows a coverage map of four CBC/Radio Canada FM transmitters broadcasting the same programming. In this case, the programming is Espace Musique and RBDS encoders are currently installed on each of these four transmitters. As a result, an RBDS compatible FM receiver tuned to any of these four frequencies can be automatically switched to the stronger signal frequency while travelling from one service contour to the other. Our field testing proved that, when the audio delays are configured properly between transmitters, the switch in frequency is seamless to the listener. We actually needed to observe the display on a separate FM receiver in order to see exactly where and when the switch in frequency occurred while driving east on Highway 10 from Montreal towards Sherbrooke and while driving east on Highway 40 from Montreal towards Trois RiviPremi Cha FM Transmitter repeaters in Gasp QC

Figure 5 shows cheap wholesale jerseys a coverage map of southern Gasp Qu where we are currently building a repeater network of five FM transmitters. These five transmitters will all broadcast the Premi Cha network programming and will be ready to begin operation in September 2012. All five of these transmitters will be equipped with an RBDS encoder and have the AF feature programmed. As a result, a vehicle with an RBDS compatible receiver tuned to 104.3 MHz in New Richmond, and travelling east on Route 132, will be automatically tuned to the best available Premi Cha FM signal all the way to cheap jerseys from china Perc QC. This represents a distance of over 250 km. Additional testing will be done this fall to determine the ideal injection levels and RBDS AF encoder setup in this very mountainous terrain. Here, the FM transmitters all broadcast Radio One programming and they cover Highway 401 from Windsor to Cornwall and the Ottawa region. This would be a more challenging RBDS encoder setup scheme, since Radio One programming is not the same for all Radio One transmitters during some periods of the day because of regional and local content. However, the RBDS standard allows the broadcaster to control the program identification codes and AF configuration of individual transmitters in a specific network during different program periods to prevent undesired automatic switching to occuring. At the time of this article, this feature and configuration have not yet been tested, at CBC/Radio Canada.Articles Connexes:

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